The Mannheim Enterprise Panel

The Mannheim Enterprise Panel

The Mannheim Enterprise Panel (MUP) is a panel dataset maintained by ZEW since 1992 that covers almost the entire population of enterprises in Germany. The MUP is the most extensive firm-level panel dataset for Germany outside of official statistics. The MUP contains information on more than 8 million firms that are or were economically active in Germany. The MUP is a joint project with Creditreform, the largest German credit agency. Creditreform provides an update of its firm data base for ZEW in six month intervals. ZEW processes the data and brings the data into a panel structure such that for every firm its development can be observed in half-yearly intervals. For the years 1990 to 1999, the MUP includes all newly registered firms from Western Germany and the entire firm population of Eastern Germany. Since 2000, the MUP covers the total firm population in Germany.

The statistical unit of the MUP is the legally independent enterprise. New businesses are registered by Creditreform through three channels: records from official registers such as the Handelsregister, reports on firms in various media, and research by Creditreform in response to requests of clients. Through this procedure, the MUP basically covers all firms with “significant economic activity”. Firms with minor economic activities – such as freelancers, microenterprises, businesses in the agricultural sector, and sideline businesses – are underrepresented in the MUP.

With its representation of the total firm population, the long time span and the large number of firm-level variables, the MUP serves as a comprehensive database that enables all kinds of microeconomic research. In particular, the MUP is employed in entrepreneurship and innovation research, for analysing growth, survival and productivity of firms, but also for studies on competition, labour markets, finance or regional economics.

Besides the various applications for microeconomic analysis, the MUP serves two major purposes at ZEW. Firstly, it is used to display industrial dynamics in Germany by calculated the yearly number of start‐ups, business closures and stock of firms in Germany broken down by sector and region (see the half-yearly publication by Creditreform and ZEW “Junge Unternehmen”). Data on start-up activity can be obtained from ZEW in the form of standardised tabulations. Secondly, ZEW uses the MUP as a sampling frame for several firm surveys, among others the Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP), which is the German part of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS)), the IAB/ZEW-Start‐up Panel and the Business Climate Survey in the Information Sector. Apart from these regular surveys the MUP also served as a sampling pool in many one-off surveys.

The MUP contains among other the following information on companies headquartered in Germany including already closed companies: The complete address, number of employed persons, amount of sales, legal form, five‐digit industry sector code (NACE rev. 2), date of foundation, date of closure, data of insolvency procedures, shareholder structure and information. Balance sheet information is available for a subset of medium sized corporations and company groups who publish this information.

Project members

Sandra Gottschalk

Sandra Gottschalk

Senior Researcher

To the profile
Johannes Bersch

Johannes Bersch

Coordinator
Advanced Researcher

To the profile
Simona Christine Murmann

Simona Christine Murmann

Advanced Researcher

To the profile
Jan Kinne

Jan Kinne

Advanced Researcher

To the profile
Cooperation partner
Dr. Lutz Bellmann, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Nürnberg, DE // Michael Bretz und Stefan Ditzen, Verband der Vereine Creditreform e.V., Neuss, DE // Prof. Konrad Stahl, Ph.D., Universität Mannheim, Mannheim, DE

Selected Publications

Gottschalk, Sandra and Bettina Müller (2022), A Second Chance for Failed Entrepreneurs: A Good Idea?, Small Business Economics

Krieger, Bastian, Maikel Pellens, Knut Blind, Sonia Gruber and Torben Schubert (2021), Are Firms Withdrawing From Basic Research? An Analysis of Firm-level Publication Behaviour in Germany, Scientometrics

Dörr, Julian Oliver, Georg Licht and Simona Christine Murmann (2021), Small firms and the COVID-19 insolvency gap, Small Business Economics

Kinne, Jan and David Lenz (2021), Predicting Innovative Firms using Web Mining and Deep Learning, PLoS One 16 (4)

Holtermann, Linus, Christian Hundt, Jonas Steeger and Johannes Bersch (2020), The utilization of cluster externalities and recessionary shocks, Industrial and Corporate Change dtaa042

Kinne, Jan and Janna Axenbeck (2020), Web Mining for Innovation Ecosystem Mapping: A Framework and a Large-scale Pilot Study, Scientometrics

Bersch, Johannes, Hans Degryse, Thomas Kick and Ingrid Stein (2020), The Real Effects of Bank Distress: Evidence from Bank Bailouts in Germany , Journal of Corporate Finance 60(C)

Höwer, Daniel (2016), Journal of Banking and Finance 65 , 59-75

Audretsch, David B., Diana Heger and Tobias Veith (2015), Small Business Economics 44(2) , 219-230

Müller, Elisabeth (2014), Small Business Economics 42(4) , 871-889

Niefert, Michaela and Sandra Gottschalk (2014), AStA Wirtschafts - und Sozialstatistisches Archiv 8 (3) , 115-145

Czarnitzki, Dirk and Kornelius Kraft (2007), Applied Financial Economics 17(13) , 1061-1070

Czarnitzki, Dirk and Kornelius Kraft (2006), Kyklos vol. 59 , 481-496

Czarnitzki, Dirk and Kornelius Kraft (2004), Economics Letters 82(3) , 377-384

Almus, Matthias, Dirk Engel and Susanne Prantl (2000), Schmollers Jahrbuch 120 , 301-308

Contact

Advanced Researcher, Dr. Johannes Bersch
Telefon +49 (0)621 1235-295