This research project aims at establishing the internal and external costs of land-based passenger transport for different means of transport, and at internalising them in such a way that efficient pricing becomes possible with a view to a sustained environmentally sound transport development. In this context, using new valuation methods we will further develop the bottom-up method of calculating the route-related internal and external costs. A sensible route typology is to be produced for road, rail and the LPT network, reflecting the different route characteristics of urban, rural and national transport regarding internal and external cost categories. In the field of passenger transport, measures need to be selected and designed that enable external effects to be charged according to the polluter-pays-principle (internalisation), meet the criterion of economic efficiency, and boost the development of a sustainable transport system. The latter requires the definition of meaningful criteria. Concerning the establishment of the route typology and the selection of transport policy measures, methodologically speaking the need arises to differentiate between the various pollution categories that are being studied. For instance, for noise pollution different internalisation measures should be chosen than for air pollution costs.