1. 17.05.2022 · ZEW (mze/sel)
    Research
    German Democratic Republic | Democratization | Eastern Germany | Labour Market

    The democratisation of the GDR after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 has had different effects on opponents and supporters of the GDR’s political regime. Former opponents – protesters for the Peaceful Revolution in 1989 and 1990 – are significantly happier with the new democratic system and the free-market economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall than they were before. Former supporters of the old system, however, report lower life satisfaction after the fall of the Wall. This is shown by a recent study by ZEW Mannheim.

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  2. 03.05.2022 · ZEW (sel)
    Research
    Electoral law | Youth | Economic Policy | Germany | Voter turnout | Elections
    Picture of a ballot paper at the drop-off.

    Due to demographic change, Germany is increasingly developing into a so-called “gerontocracy”. A reform lowering the voting age to 16 is supposed to counteract this. A recent study by ZEW Mannheim examines the question of whether such a reform is ambitious enough to anchor future-oriented interests more strongly in current politics. The study suggests that lowering the voting age does little to change a central limitation of democracy: If voters care only about their narrow interests, then policies will tend to be strongly shaped by the present and, in this case, an ageing society. Intergenerational altruism among voters should be encouraged and more investments should be made to improve voters’ education about long-term policy challenges.

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  3. 29.04.2022 · ZEW (kso/kgt/sel)
    Research
    Eastern Europeans | Labour Market | Germany | Skills shortage
    ZEW Expert Brief on Current Labor Market Changes in Germany.

    Germany heavily depends on workers from other EU countries. As a result of the EU’s free movement of workers, the number of immigrant workers has more than quadrupled: in 2020, 1.3 million Eastern Europeans were working in Germany subject to social insurance contributions. Mainly, they worked in the postal and warehousing sectors, as drivers and in cleaning. Most of them pay into the German social security system, while employment as mini-jobbers and postings play an increasingly minor role among Eastern Europeans. In addition, Eastern Europeans work disproportionately often in occupational fields with a shortage of skilled workers, which is why they tend to contribute to relieving the tight German labour market. This is the result of a recent expert brief by ZEW Mannheim, which looks at the consequences of the free movement of workers from Central and Eastern Europe for the German labour market.

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  4. 21.04.2022 · ZEW (fbr/sel)
    Research
    ZEW Financial Market Survey | Russia | Ukraine | Germany | GDP | Short-term forecast | Business Cycle

    German economic growth has stalled – and is expected to proceed at a sluggish pace in the coming years. According to the financial market experts surveyed by ZEW, lower but stable annual growth rates of between 2.0 and 2.5 per cent are anticipated in 2022 to 2024. Several factors will act as a drag on German GDP, including high energy prices, raw material shortages, and supply chain disruptions – as well as the new geopolitical situation that has arisen with Russia's invasion of Ukraine. The majority of experts have made downward revisions to their GDP growth forecasts for 2022, 2023 and beyond. With a view to the next five years, individual sectors of the German economy will be affected to varying degrees by geopolitical developments, with the greatest impacts being suffered by vehicle manufacturing, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, steel and non-ferrous metals, and mechanical engineering.

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  5. 13.04.2022 · ZEW (kso/sel)
    Research
    Ukraine | Russia | War | Migration policy | Germany
    Photo of a family of four on the road with a suitcase.

    More than 4.6 million Ukrainians have fled the country since the start of the war. As a result of the invasion, more and more people are also fleeing from Russia. Reasons for this range from the restricted freedom of expression, fear of political persecution or being drafted into military service, to poor economic prospects following the unprecedented level of sanctions on Russia. What is different with current Russian migrants fleeing to neighbouring countries compared to Ukrainian migrants, is that there are indications that the economically active population is over-represented among the Russian emigrants. This may include specialists in the IT and other creative sectors of the economy, who have international language skills as well as customers.

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  6. 11.04.2022 · ZEW (sgo/sel)
    Research
    Start-up dynamism | Firm formation | Bankruptcy | Germany
     Symbol photo of a transparent globe on the image of a mind map.

    Failing with a start-up is usually considered as a valuable experience whose insights will help the founders to be more successful in their next start-up. However, this is a false conclusion, as a recent study by ZEW Mannheim and the Institute for SME Research (ifm) at the University of Mannheim shows. On the contrary, there is an above-average probability that those founders will fail again with future start-ups.

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  7. 05.04.2022 · ZEW (cra/sel)
    Research
    Innovation | Innovation activity | Germany | Eco-innovation | Climate Change
    Photo of a light bulb infront of people sitting together.

    Climate change affects firms in Germany in several ways. This triggers not only eco-innovations in firms to mitigate the effects of global warming, but also other innovations, as a recent study by ZEW Mannheim together with the University of Applied Sciences Augsburg shows.

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  8. 01.04.2022 · ZEW (mkn/bch/deg)
    Research
    Energy efficiency | Households | Income | Energy saving
    Graph showing the effect of the voucher rate on the success rate.

    The prices for electricity and heat have risen sharply recently. This puts pressure on low-income households in particular, as they have less financial leeway to deal with the high prices. In many cases, the obvious savings options have already been exhausted. At the same time, worthwhile investments in energy-efficient household appliances, such as a new refrigerator, usually cannot be made without additional financial support. However, support programmes to increase energy efficiency in low-income households should not only focus on purely financial support, but combine the offer with targeted behavioural incentives to achieve the greatest possible success. This is the result of a recent ZEW policy brief by ZEW Mannheim and Heidelberg University, which is based on an empirical analysis of the “Energy-Saving Check”, a joint initiative of the German Caritas Association and the Bundesverband der Energie- und Klimaschutzagenturen.

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  9. 31.03.2022 · ZEW (fhe/sel)
    Research
    Coronavirus | Public Budget | state subsidies | Germany | Europe
    Picture of a written board on a sidewalk.

    As the COVID-19 crisis slowly abates, the EU Member States are now confronted with a new economic crisis as a result of the war in Ukraine. The rapid succession of crises reinforces the need to respond with highly targeted and temporary aid measures to avoid wasting public resources and preserve fiscal buffers. Against this background, a new study by ZEW Mannheim for the European Parliament has examined which Member States have pursued insufficiently targeted policy measures to cushion the pandemic crisis over the past two years and have remained in crisis mode for too long despite economic recovery. Italy, France and Greece in particular have been too slow in scaling down their aid measures. In the case of Germany, the study criticises in particular that the government has adhered to the very generous short-time work rules for too long.

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  10. 23.03.2022 · ZEW (cra/rha)
    Research
    Artificial intelligence | Start-Up | Germany
    Figure showing the number of AI startups in Germany.

    Start-up activity in the field of artificial intelligence in Germany has been very dynamic over the past decade. The years 2014 to 2018 saw a veritable start-up boom with annual figures rising from 250 newly founded companies to over 450. AI start-ups have a high probability of survival in the market and are characterised by strong growth in employee numbers, as a comprehensive stocktaking of the AI landscape by ZEW Mannheim shows. “The high dynamics and the good performance of AI start-ups illustrate that artificial intelligence is an important growth field with a lot of room for development for newly founded companies,” says ZEW economist Dr. Christian Rammer from ZEW’s Research Department “Economics of Innovation and Industrial Dynamics”.

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