BREATHE will analyse the interactions between urban form, economic welfare, energy use and emissions by households and firms. Increasing urban density and increasing city size tend to reduce households’ average energy consumption. However, increasing population density also tends to reduce local air quality. We study this trade-off as well as urban policies to stimulate the transition towards low-carbon cities. We do so by collecting data in four very different European cities – Amsterdam, Istanbul, Gothenburg and Barcelona – and by developing an economic model that can be used for policy simulations. We actively engage policy makers and companies from the four cities.


Swedish Energy Agency , Stockholm , SE

Project duration

01.07.2016 - 30.06.2020

Project members

Dr. Wolfgang Habla (Coordinator)

Cooperation partner

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, NL
Göteborgs Universitet, Gothenburg, SE
Sabanci Üniversitesi Istanbul, Istanbul, TR
Cylstat, Valladolid, ES
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, ES
Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Istanbul, TR
Ecorys, Amsterdam, NL
Traffic & Public Transport Authority of Gothenburg, Göteborg, SE
Autoritat del Transport Metropolità (ATM) Barcelona, Barcelona, ES