Selected Academic Papers

The Mannheim Innovation Panel offers unique opportunities to address questions of economics and economic policy in relation to firms' innovation activities. The following ZEW discussion papers draw on data from the ZEW innovation survey.


  • Czarnitzki, Dirk, Gastón P. Fernández and Christian Rammer (2022), Artificial Intelligence and Firm-Level Productivity, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-005, Mannheim. Download
  • Rammer, Christian (2022), Measuring Process Innovation Output: Results from Firm-Level Panel Data, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-002, Mannheim. Download


  • Giebel, Marek and Kornelius Kraft (2021), Subsidies and Innovation in the Recent Financial Crisis, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 21-097, Mannheim. Download
  • Czarnitzki, Dirk and Marek Giebel (2021), Financial Constraints for R&D and Innovation: New Evidence From a Survey Experiment, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 21-084, Mannheim. Download
  • Krieger, Bastian and Vera Zipperer (2021), Does Green Public Procurement Trigger Environmental Innovations?, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 21-071, Mannheim. Download
  • Rammer, Christian, Dirk Czarnitzki and Gastón P. Fernández (2021), Artificial Intelligence and Industrial Innovation: Evidence From Firm-Level Data, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 21-036, Mannheim. Download


  • Wittenstein, Daniel (2020), Champions of Digital Transformation? The Dynamic Capabilities of Hidden Champions, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 20-065, Mannheim. Download
  • Breithaupt, Patrick, Reinhold Kesler, Thomas Niebel and Christian Rammer (2020), Intangible Capital Indicators Based on Web Scraping of Social Media, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 20-046, Mannheim. Download
  • Böing, Philipp and Paul Hünermund (2020), A Global Decline in Research Productivity? Evidence from China and Germany, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 20-030, Mannheim, erschienen in: Economics Letters. Download
  • Trunschke, Markus, Christian Rammer and Felix Roth (2020), Measuring Organisation Capital at the Firm Level: A Production Function Approach, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 20-021, Mannheim. Download
  • Giebel, Marek and Kornelius Kraft (2020), R&D Investment Under Financing Constraints, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 20-018, Mannheim. Download
  • Horbach, Jens and Christian Rammer (2020), Labor Shortage and Innovation, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 20-009, Mannheim. Download
  • Holl, Adelheid, Bettina Peters and Christian Rammer (2020), Local Knowledge Spillovers and Innovation Persistence of Firms, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 20-005, Mannheim. Download
  • Krüger, Miriam, Jan Kinne, David Lenz and Bernd Resch (2020), The Digital Layer: How Innovative Firms Relate on the Web, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 20-003, Mannheim. Download


  • Axenbeck, Janna and Patrick Breithaupt (2019), Web-Based Innovation Indicators – Which Firm Website Characteristics Relate to Firm-Level Innovation Activity?, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 19-063, Mannheim. Download
  • Horbach, Jens and Christian Rammer (2019), Employment and Performance Effects of Circular Economy Innovations, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 19-016, Mannheim. Download
  • Rammer, Christian and Alfred Spielkamp (2019), The Distinct Features of Hidden Champions in Germany: A Dynamic Capabilities View, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 19-012, Mannheim. Download
  • Comin, Diego, Georg Licht, Maikel Pellens and Torben Schubert (2019), Do Companies Benefit from Public Research Organizations? The Impact of the Fraunhofer Society in Germany, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 19-006, Mannheim. Download
  • Kinne, Jan and David Lenz (2019), Predicting Innovative Firms Using Web Mining and Deep Learning, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 19-001, Mannheim. Download


  • Peters, Bettina, Mark J. Roberts and Van Anh Vuong (2018), Firm R&D Investment and Export Market Exposure, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 18-047, Mannheim. Download
  • Peters, Bettina, Rebecca Riley, Iulia Siedschlag, Priit Vahter and John McQuinn (2018), Internationalisation, Innovation and Productivity in Services: Evidence from Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 18-009, Mannheim, published in: Review of World Economics. Download
  • Köhler, Mila (2018), Estimating the Benefits of R&D Subsidies for Germany, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 18-002, Mannheim. Download
  • Czarnitzki, Dirk, Paul Hünermund and Nima Moshgbar (2018), Public Procurement as Policy Instrument for Innovation, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 18-001, Mannheim. Download