The social market economy in Germany has long been associated with ensuring prosperity and social inclusion. Given growing income and wealth inequality, the question of sustainability of this economic role model arises. In the public debate, doubts on the ability of the social market economy occur, to what extent it is still able to integrate economic growth and social inclusion. This investigation aims at describing and analyzing the historic development of economic growth, inequality, and poverty in Germany. Building on the descriptive analysis, we seek to answer the question to what extent economic growth and social inclusion were and are compatible.