This book analyses the impact of patent rights regimes in universities. In particular, it investigates whether patent rights in research results provide incentives to patent and commercially exploit research results. The patent rights regimes in Sweden and Germany are studied in more detail. In Sweden, the university scholars themselves own the results of their research endeavours whereas the university owns the patent rights in research results in Germany. In addition, the role of technology transfer offices and similar intermediaries in both countries is assessed. The book is based on a survey of university scholars in Sweden and Germany and interview data of technology transfer offices and similar transfer organisations. The book provides a discussion of incentive structures in universities and presents the factors that are important with regard to patenting and commercialisation of research results from universities.