Distinguishing carefully between mobility across firms and across occupations, this study provides causal estimates of the wage effects of mobility among graduates from apprenticeship in Germany. Our instrumental variables approach exploits variation in regional labor market characteristics. Pure firm changes and occupation-and-job changes after graduation from apprenticeship result in average wage losses, whereas an occupation change within the training firm results in persistent wage gains. For the majority of cases a change of occupation involves a career progression. In contrast, for job switches the wage loss dominates.

Fitzenberger, Bernd, Stefanie Licklederer und Hanna Zwiener (2015), Mobility Across Firms and Occupations Among Graduates from Apprenticeship, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 15-022, Mannheim. Download


Fitzenberger, Bernd
Licklederer, Stefanie
Zwiener, Hanna


Apprenticeship Training, Job Mobility, Occupational Mobility, Wages