Happy birthday to the German Federal Cartel Office! As the Federal Cartel Office turns 60 this year, it can look back on a long history of successes. But now is not the time for the Office to rest on its laurels. The mission of the Federal Cartel Office is to enforce the Act against Restraints of Competition (GWB), which forms the basis of Germany’s antitrust laws, and in doing so protect competition. The GWB sets out rules for the main instruments for protecting competition: anti-cartel enforcement, abuse control, and merger control. However, the GWB was not welcomed from all sides before it was passed. As the leading advocate of legally determined competition regulations back in the 1950s, Ludwig Erhard did not have an easy task facing up to the voices of protest coming from German industry. The GWB was eventually passed in 1957 and came into effect on 1 January 1958.