The EU has ambitious goals in terms of economic performance. The goals are to be reached in combination with social cohesion and sustainable development in terms of environment. The key economic policy instruments to be used by the EU member states are comprised of taxes and benefits. The economic and political framework for carrying out measures in this field is currently delineated, both encouraged and constrained by factors such as environmental challenges, ageing, globalisation and more intense international system competition in tax and social policies. The aim of the project has been to carry out an in-depth analysis of tax/benefit policies in five broad themes, where these policies play a crucial role in terms of the key EU goals: Employment; Corporate taxes under tax competition; Productivity growth and convergence; Macroeconomic policies under a single monetary policy; and Environment and climate change. The project was carried out by seven European economic policy research institutes within the ENEPRI (European Network of Economic Policy Research Institutes) network. The project delivered, on the one hand, a large number of research insights into actual behaviour related to tax/benefit systems and, on the other hand, reached conclusions which should be taken into account while considering policy-making in, and reforms related to, tax/benefit policies in the EU. (Project web site: www.taxben.org)