With the agreement on setting up a transparency mechanism (TM), the 2015 Paris Accord took an important step towards strengthening compliance in international climate policy through monitoring, reporting, verification, and enforcement (MRV&E). The details of the TM and of the associated enforcement mechanisms are the subject of ongoing follow-up negotiations. They have given rise to substantial expectations about the comprehensive implementation of the Paris Accord by the signatory states. Despite their  significance, transparency and enforcement mechanisms in international climate policies have not received the required attention. The joint project COMPLIANCE carried out by Heidelberg University, the University of Kassel, the University of Mannheim and the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) aims to improve the state of knowledge about systemic and country-specific factors of climate policy compliance. In addition, it aims to add theoretical and empirical insights for a better understanding of the relative performance of different MRV&E regimes in welfare terms and for more informed negotiation strategies. A particular emphasis in the latter domain is on countries with high commitment to fulfilling their Nationally Determined Contributions. COMPLIANCE will examine MRV&E in three tightly linked work packages that combine methods of applied theory, econometrics, and experimental economics. Together with a communication and outreach component, a distinguished Scientific Advisory Board and a diverse Practitioners‘ Panel, COMPLIANCE will provide important inputs for enhancing compliance in international climate policies.

Additional information on the COMPLIANCE website: kooperationen.zew.de/compliance/home.html


Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart, DE

Project duration

01.09.2018 - 31.05.2022

Cooperation partner

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, DE
Universität Kassel, Kassel, DE
Universität Mannheim, Mannheim, DE