The instrument of tradable certificates was the focal point of this research project. So far, the trading of green certificates for promoting renewable sources of energy has mainly been discussed for the electricity sector, and several EU Member States are in the process of implementing such schemes.

In the InTraCert project, we examined the applicability to expand this support scheme for renewable energy sources to the gas as well as the heat sector. Another important part of InTraCert was the analysis of the interaction between a tradable green certificates system and the realisation of the Kyoto mechanisms. Finally, we looked at the existing regulatory instruments in the EU Member States in the fields of climate, environmental and energy policy, and checked their compatibility with the new instruments of certificate trading.
The objective of the project was to determine the main elements for the optimal design of an integrated European certificates system.

One of the major outcomes was a comprehensive list of policy recommendations for implementing trading systems for RES and GHG-emissions at the EU and/or at the national level.

Selected Publications

Articles in Refereed Journals

Articles in Non-Refereed Journals

Discussion and Working Papers

Boots, M.G., G.J. Schaeffer, C. Mitchell, P.E. Morthorst, Isabel Kühn, Wolfgang Bräuer, Marcus Stronzik, M. Gual and et al. (2001), The Interaction of Tradable Instruments in Renewable Energy and Climate Change Markets, ECN-C--01-048, Petten. Download

ECN, CMUR, RISOe, UAM, ZEW, Isabel Kühn, Wolfgang Bräuer and Marcus Stronzik (2000), InTraCert: Inception Report - The Role of an Integrated Tradable Green Certificate System in a Liberalising Market, ECN-C--00-085, Dec. 2000, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN),, Petten. Download


Europäische Kommission, Generaldirektion Forschung, Brüssel, BE

Project duration

01.02.2000 - 31.07.2001

Cooperation partner

Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, DK
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, ES
Centre for Management under Regulation (CMUR), University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten, NL