Within the research area “Social Policies and Inequality over the Lifecycle” we study the effectiveness and distributional implications of different family and labour market policies. We place a special focus on the empirical analysis of social and intergenerational mobility and on adopting a lifecycle perspective assessing policy effects. Moreover, we conduct in-depth analyses of gender differences in the labour market. Our empirical evidence forms the basis for policy recommendations to improve the equality of opportunity and reduce lifecycle as well as gender inequalities. Researchers in this area regularly participate in the official German Federal Government’s report on poverty and wealth.