ZEW Discussion Papers


Researchers at the ZEW participate in scientific debates by publishing their papers. The papers are predominantly in English (marked). For the German papers an English abstract is available. The contributions are intended for a final publication in special interest titles. The discussion papers can be downloaded as PDF or PostScript files starting from 1.1.1998. They aimed at national and international target groups.

  1. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-010 // 2022

    Privatizing Disability Insurance

    Public disability insurance (DI) programs in many countries face pressure to reduce their generosity in order to remain sustainable. In this paper, we investigate the welfare effects of giving a larger role to…

  2. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-009 // 2022

    Green Start-Ups and the Role of Founder Personality

    Green start-ups play a vital role in the needed transition towards more environmentally sustainable economies. Yet our understanding of why some founders start green ventures and others do not remains…

  3. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-008 // 2022

    Climate Change Affectedness and Innovation in German Firms

    Eco-innovations are crucial for the mitigation of climate change effects. It is therefore important to know if the existing climate change regulations and carbon pricing are appropriate and sufficient to trigger…

  4. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-007 // 2022

    Using Big Data for Generating Firm-Level Innovation Indicators – A Literature Review

    Obtaining indicators on innovation activities of firms has been a challenge in economic research for a long time. The most frequently used indicators - R&D expenditure and patents - provide an incomplete picture…

  5. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-006 // 2022

    Greenwashing in the US Metal Industry? A Novel Approach Combining SO2 Concentrations From Satellite Data, a Plant-Level Firm Database and Web Text Mining

    This Discussion Paper deals with the issue of greenwashing, i.e. the false portrayal of companies as environmentally friendly. The analysis focuses on the US metal industry, which is a major emission source of…

  6. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-005 // 2022

    Artificial Intelligence and Firm-Level Productivity

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is often regarded as the next general-purpose technology with a rapid, penetrating, and far-reaching use over a broad number of industrial sectors. A main feature of new…

  7. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-004 // 2022

    Government Expenditure in the DINA Framework: Allocation Methods and Consequences for Post-Tax Income Inequality

    Constructing measures of post-tax income inequality that are consistent with national accounts requires the allocation of the entirety of government expenditure to individuals. About half of government…

  8. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-003 // 2022

    R&D Grant and Tax Credit Support for Foreign-Owned Subsidiaries: Does It Pay Off?

    Foreign-owned subsidiaries make significant contributions to national Research and Development (R&D) in many host countries. Policymakers often support subsidiaries through R&D grants and R&D tax credits. A key…

  9. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 22-002 // 2022

    Measuring Process Innovation Output: Results from Firm-Level Panel Data

    Process innovation is an important part of firms’ innovation activities and supposed to significantly contribute to positive returns from innovation. Measuring process innovation output at the firm level is…

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