The European electricity and gas markets have been going through a process of liberalisation since the early 1990s. This process has changed the sector from a regulated structure of, predominantly, publicly owned monopolists controlling the entire supply chain, into a market where private and public generators and retailers compete on a regulated and unbundled system of transport infrastructure. This report assesses the evidence of the effects of liberalisation on efficiency, security of energy supply and environmental sustainability.

Mulder, Machiel, Victoria Shestalova, Gijsbert Zwart, Astrid Dannenberg, Tim Mennel and Ulf Moslener (2006), Liberalisation of European energy markets: challenges and policy options, CPB Document No 138, The Hague, the Netherlands. Download


Mulder, Machiel
Shestalova, Victoria
Zwart, Gijsbert
Dannenberg, Astrid
Mennel, Tim
Moslener, Ulf


Liberalisation, energy, efficiency, security of supply, environmental policy