Equality of opportunity (EOp, or IOp for inequality of opportunity) is said to hold if individual positions in an outcome distribution are independent of individual circumstances (e.g. parents’ education/occupation, ethnicity, gender), and only influenced by personal effort. Almost all empirical studies estimate that the extent to which income inequality is dependent on circumstances is quite small. In this project, we argue that many important circumstances that play a role in income determination have been ignored in the empirical literature.
Discussion and Working Papers
Hufe, Paul, Andreas Peichl, John Roemer and Martin Ungerer (2015), Inequality of Income Acquisition: The Role of Childhood Circumstances, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 15-084, Mannheim. Download